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PG VG Mixture

PG + VG Meanings and Mixtures

VG = Vegetable Glycerine - is thick and somewhat sweet.  It produces luscious clouds of vapor and also imparts a sweeter taste to your liquid.

PG = Propylene Glycol - is a much thinner liquid.  It produces more of a “throat hit” than VG e-liquid does, which simulates the feel of smoking better.  It carries the flavor a little better too. PG e-liquid also has a higher rate of sensitivity for some people, meaning that some people just can’t use PG in their vape.

Below are common E-Liquid ratios and are in percentages like so: PG%VG%

100% PG - Most throat hit, thinnest liquid, most flavor tasted
60/40 - Very common cartomizer and tank mixture. More vapor than 100% PG. This is Slim's E-Juice Standard Mix.
50/50 - Best of both worlds. 
40/60 - More Vapor. Would clog cartomizers very quickly.
20/80 - Very thick, most vapor. Most likely the highest VG you can buy.
100% VG - Very rare, as most flavorings and liquid nicotine are in PG carriers.

 

What Is PG

Propylene glycol used in our eliquid.

Propylene glycol is used as a ‘humectant’ which means it maintains moisture levels in food products, cosmetics and tobacco products. Humectants are what make hair conditioning products work as well as create the ‘moisturizing’ effects of many common cosmetics and consumer products we take for granted such as: make up, mascara, hand creams, body lotions as well as shave creams, shampoos and soaps. Additionally, propylene glycol is used as a solvent to enhance the ability of artificial flavorings to remain suspended in solution in products such as toothpaste and mouthwash.

How is it made?

Propylene glycol is a petroleum-based product, in other words it is derived from crude oil. The crude oil is processed into a substance called ‘Naptha’ which is in turn created into an intermediate substance called Propylene Oxide. This substance is then turned into propylene glycol. A glycol is simply a form of an alcohol molecule. It is this molecular transformation which makes propylene glycol function as a moisturizing agent.

What are propylene glycol’s applications?

Propylene glycol is used:

As a solvent in many pharmaceuticals, including oral, injectable and topical formulations.
As a humectant food additive, labeled as E number E1520
As a moisturizer in medicines, cosmetics, food, toothpaste, mouth wash, and tobacco products
As a carrier in fragrance oils
As an ingredient in massage oils
In hand sanitizers, antibacterial lotions, and saline solutions such as eye drops
In smoke machines to make artificial smoke or fog
In electronic cigarettes, it is used to deliver vaporized nicotine
As a solvent for food colors and flavorings
As an ingredient, along with wax and gelatin, in the production of paintballs
As a moisture stabilizer (humectant) for snus (Swedish style snuff).
As a cooling agent for beer and wine glycol jacketed fermentation tanks
As a less-toxic antifreeze
To regulate humidity in a cigar humidor
As an additive to pipe tobacco and regular cigarette tobacco to prevent dehydration.
As the main ingredient in deodorant sticks.

How much propylene glycol am I exposed to on a daily basis?

A lot, actually. If you use toothpaste, mouthwash, makeup, mascara, soap, shampoo, hand cream, eye drops, shave cream, eat cake, brownies, donuts, cake frosting, smoke cigarettes, you are already exposed to propylene glycol on a daily basis. It is unknown exactly how much is “too much.” However, the FDA states that propylene glycol meets the GRAS standard aka Generally Regarded As Safe.

The research on propylene glycol use and consumption is extensive in animals and humans For animals, the basic rate is around 9mg per liter per kilogram (2.2 lbs.) of body weight per day on average. However, what happens when that level is exceeded things like skin irritation, nausea may result at much higher dosages. That said, if one considers just how many consumer products rely on propylene glycol, it is hard to imagine that the additional consumption in the form of electronic cigarettes would do anything to materially affect toxicity above and beyond what is seen naturally occurring across human populations on a daily basis. Also, considering that people have a differing range of propylene glycol exposure from various food and cosmetic products and have different body weights, getting an exact dosage amount would prove challenging. That said, the amounts that electronic cigarettes pose to add to the overall average exposure amount could be classified as negligible.

According to the following research studies, Gaunt, IF, Carpanini, FMB, Grasso, P and Lansdown, ABG, Long-term toxicity of propylene glycol in rats, Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, Apr. 1972, 10(2), pages 151 – 162 and National Library of Medicine;.Propylene glycol Human Toxicity Excerpts: CAS Registry Number: 57-55-6 (1,2-Propylene Glycol). Selected toxicity information from HSDB. 2005 The oral toxicity of propylene glycol is extremely low, and large amounts are required to instigate the dangerous effects. The potential for long-term toxicity is also very low. In one study, rats were given feed with as much as 5% PG over a period of 104 weeks and showed no apparent ill effects.Due to propylene glycol’s low chronic oral toxicity, propylene glycol is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as a direct food additive. Cases of propylene glycol poisoning are related to either inappropriate levels of intravenous or subcutaneous fluid injection use or the accidental consumption of large quantities by children.

What does the FDA say about propylene glycol?

Per the FDA website:

“… The Select Committee has weighed the available information and concludes that: There is no evidence in the available information on propylene glycol and propylene glycol monostearate that demonstrates, or suggests reason to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in future.”

What is VG

Vegetable Glycerin used in our eliquid

Vegetable glycerin is also known as vegetable glycerol. It is a carbohydrate that is usually derived from plant oils. It is used as a sweetener and as an ingredient in a number of cosmetic products. Vegetable glycerin is also used in place of alcohol to extract botanicals. Citation

Vegetable glycerin based E-liquid usually contain at least 80% and as much as 92% Vegetable glycerin. This is the ingredient that produces the smoke like vapor when the e-cigarette is exhaled. Approximately 20% of all e-liquids on the market today are vegetable glycerin based. Vegetable glycerin typically produces more vapor production then propylene glycol, but has reduced throat hit. It is also slightly more viscous (thicker) and slightly sweeter then propylene glycol. Its increased thickness makes it a culprit in reducing the life of atomizers. Some e-smokers use a blend of vegetable glycerin and propylene glycol - most often 80-90% PG and 10-20% VG, and sometimes a 50/50 split VG to PG in their e-liquid.

Vegetable glycerin is approved by the FDA for use in various forms. Products with Vegetable Glycerin can be found in various common items around your house. A few examples include:

Sugar substitute
In Beauty products including makeup, mousse, shampoo, bubble bath, after shave, and deodorant
Pet food
Soap
Skin and hand cream
Baked goods - increase moisture
As a thick gel for creams, gel capsule pills, rubs and jellies
Eye & ear drops, toothpastes, pastes, and many dental care products

Vegetable glycerin comes in USP grade and food grade. We sell only USP grade (99.7% pure) vegetable glycerin on our Canadian E-cigarette Store.

Glycerine is classified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) and complies with specifications for the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC), United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. or EP) E244. It is manufactured according to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and is shipped according to applicable Good Trade and Distribution Practices (GTDP). Citation
Vegetable Glycerin studies


Glycerol is one of the most benign organic liquids known to man. It is hype-allergenic, non-carcinigeic, non teratogenic and non-mutagenic. It is metabolized quite easily by a process called beta-oxidation. This process results in the production of CO2 and H2O and is a quite normal, common, and natural catabolic process.

The following is a few excerpts from a study called SIDS initial assessment profile of Glycerol Citation

Glycerol is of low toxicity when injested, inhaled, or in contact with skin
The NOACE for local irritant effects to the upper respiratory tract is 165 mg/m3
Glycerol is of a low order of acute oral and dermal toxicity with LD50 values in excess of 4000 mg/kw bw.
Glycerol has low potential to irritate the skin and the eye
Glycerol is not a skin sensitiser
Glycerol does not induce gene mutations in bacterial strains, chromosomal effects in mammalian cells or primary DNA damage in vitro
Overall, glycerol is not considered to possess genotoxic potential
No effects on fertility and reproductive performance were observed
No further work is indicated by this study, because of the low hazard potential of this substance.

Health on Vegetable Glycerin:

Vegetable glycerin, and more generally glycerin (a.k.a. Glycerol) is labeled by the environment domestic substance: "This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. The chemical was flagged for as a low human health priority."

FDA also permits Vegetable Glycerin for use as a food additive. Citation

Vegetable Glycerin Allergies & Side effects

Allergies

The risk of being allergic to vegetable glycerin is very low. The only patient population which may experience problems with metabolism of Glycerol would be diabetics owing to the anabolic hepatic pathway which can convert free Glycerol to glucose(but this would still not be an issue at the levels used in vaping).

Side Effects

The most common noted side effect of inhalation of e-liquid containing vegetable glycerin is a dry mouth, sore throat, and increased thirst. These symptoms usually last just a few days to a week as the body gets used to the vegetable glycerin. These symptoms can be lessened by drinking more water and liquids then usual for the first few weeks of using your e-cigarette.

If you are moving from smoking traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes, you will find there are many side effects of quitting smoking tobacco products. It is very easy for a new user of an e-cigarette to incorrectly attribute these quitting smoking side effects to the e-cigarette, when in fact they are likely the result of your bodies reaction to quitting smoking tobacco cigarettes. Side effects of quitting smoking include: Bad breath, stomach pain, nausea, constipation, increased appetite, skin breakout's, increased coughing, insomnia, depression, vagueness, irritability, gas, dry throat, nasal drip, dizziness, vertigo. Many of these side effects of quitting smoking will be alleviated by using the e-cigarette.